SEGMENT LIFTING THE LOAD OF THE INDUSTRY INDUSTRIAL CRANES
THE CRANE IS THE PRIMARY MACHINERY OF IMPORTANT MACHINERIES COMFORTING THE LIFE OF HUMAN AND CONTRIBUTING TO THE INDUSTRIAL DEVELOPMENT. SINCE VAST AMOUNT OF TRANSFER IS REQUIRED THROUGH THE INPUT AND OUTPUT LINES OF RAW MATERIALS IN PRODUCTION PROCESSES OF FIRMS CARRYING OUT MASS PRODUCTION, CRANES IN DIFFERENT STRENGTHS AND VOLUMES ARE REQUIRED. TURKEY RANKS AS THE 21TH IN WORLD LIST WITH ITS EXPORT VOLUME FOR 110 MILLIN DOLLARS IN 2018 WITHIN THE INDUSTRIAL ELECTRIC CRANE SEGMENT WHICH CONSTITUTES A TRADE VOLUME REACHING TO 30 BILLION DOLLARS IN A GLOBAL SCALE.
Cranes are the machineries which enable us to carry out lifting a heavy or gabarited material from one place to another with vertical or horizontal movements with constant or intermittent operations within a manufacturing process in open or closed areas when the human power is not adequate for the lifting. Therefore, it is not possible for heavy industry facilities, manufacturing industries, construction industries, logistics and similar industries to carry out their operations without cranes. Furthermore, it is frequently said that even the number of small-scaled facilities which do not use lifting machinery is scarcely any within all industrial sectors.
The first cranes are considered to be started being used during the production processes of humanity since B.C 5th century. We come across with the first crane drawings in the book named as “Ten Books on Architecture - De Architectura Libri Decem” by Marcus Vitruvius Pollio, well-known architecture and engineer who had lived in the A.C 1th century. This crane was consisting of a pole of a pole of which top there was a block and which was fixed with ropes; another rope passing through the block was connecting to the loads and it was lifted by a treadmill directed by slaves. And then in 15th century, more useful and functional crane called as crane with pulley block was invented in Italy. And the first crane operating with steam power was developed by Scotch John Rennie (1761-1821) in 19th century.
MANUFACTURING IN TURKEY DATES BACK TO 1950s
Crane manufacturing launched by various firms in Turkey during 1950s was developed in time. Attempt years of this important sub-segment of machinery manufacturing dates back to 1970s. Crane manufacturing maintaining its increase by the efforts of several firms carrying out manufacturing in Istanbul and surrounding provinces directed to the import-based manufacturing upon the removal of the obstacles before the import during 1980s. Therefore, the crane manufacturing capacity of Turkey was beyond the expectations as a result of the increased number of firms towards 2000s. According to the experts, 80% of the crane needs in Turkey is met by the national manufacturing. When taken into consideration of the development speed of the trade which neglects boundary, distance and size in a globalizing world, although the crane segment which manufacturing the lifting equipment which is one of the most important needs of the manufacturing and logistics industry is predicted to maintain its growth in parallel with the current tendency, 40% of the sectoral manufacturing is being exported. Great majority of the firms carrying out crane manufacturing in the world maintain their competition in the domestic market with Turkish crane manufacturers through their own offices or representation offices.
MANUFACTURING METHODS ARE BEING DEVELOPED
The fundamental purpose of the lifting operation in industry is to minimize the manufacturing duration and cost and ensure the safe manufacturing process by decreasing the material flow duration within the manufacturing duration to minimum figures. Therefore, in the selection of electric crane, operation of the system with the desired performance during the usage duration of the system is the foremost characteristic to be taken into consideration. Therefore, the experts draw attention to the requirement that the crane and its parts to be selected should be exactly manufactured in accordance with the standards of European Materials Handling Federation (Federation Europeenne de la Manutention-FEM). On the other hand, products of crane industry generally requires similar design and manufacturing methods. Competitive capacity of the manufacturers increases in products which require engineering and designation for which cheap labor force and raw material are of great importance compared to low value-added standard products. While crane segment, which is the close flower of technology is improving fast thanks to the point where computer technology is standing right now and with its effect on the manufacturing process, improvement in the measurement methods with the counters used and its computerized control increase the flexibility of crane segment especially in the non-standard products. However, with the support of CAD-CAM systems defect-free products can be manufactured in the first place through the minimum cost.
GLOBAL VOLUME HAS REACHED 30 BILLION DOLLARS
Electric crane segment in a global scale has been subject of a trade for 30 billion dollars in 2018 according to the data of UN Statistics Department. And Turkey maintains its fast increase in industrial electric crane segment which has an export market for 14.95 billion dollars and import market for approximately same value around the world. Turkey carried out export for 110 million dollars with an increase by 16.2% in the last year. The most powerful countries in crane segment export in 2018 are China with 3.56 billion dollars and an increase by 5.6 percent; Germany with 1.8 billion dollars and an decrease by 0.5 percent; Italy with 1.6 billion dollars and an increase by 15.7 percent; and Turkey ranked as the 20th with its export for 110 million dollars and an increase by 16.2 percent as we have mentioned before.
The most powerful purchaser countries in a global scale in 2018 are USA with 2 billion dollars and an increase by 25.7; Germany with 597.3 million dollars and an increase by 2.6 percent and Holland with 521.9 million dollars and an decrease by 9.6 percent.
WE ARE EXPORTING TO HOLLAND IMPORTING FROM GERMANY
When detailed export and import numbers are reviewed specifically to Turkey, according to TUİK’s 2018 data, we can say that we are carrying out export mostly with Holland and import mostly with Germany.
When the sectoral export of Turkey is reviewed according to the countries according to the TUİK data which is compliance with UN Statistics Department data, Turkey carried out export for 109.8 million dollars with increase by 16.2% in 2018 and Holland has taken its place at the first rank in the list of top 10 counties which we carried out the most export for 17.7 million dollars with increase by 142.3%. While Austria is following this country with export for 11.6 million dollars with increase by 3.3%; export for 6.7 million dollars with an increase by 34.9 was carried out to Algeria which is in the third rank at the list. According to data published by TUİK, Turkish crane manufacturers in 2018 carried out export mostly in the product group “Block, hand jack, capstan, lever jack, crack sections and parts” with the code of 843110 GTİP. While a value decrease for 7.5 percent in this product group was experienced compared to 2017, sectoral export reached to 27 million dollars. An increase for 8.1 percent in the product group “overhead crane determined on a pedestal mount” with the code of 842611 GTİP which ranked as the second in the list was observed while the export reached to 24.1 million dollars. An increase for 68.9 percent was experienced in the product group “Cranes” with the code of 842619 GTİP which ranked as the third and export value for 22.1 million dollars was reached compared to 2017. The most powerful export increase of the sector in 2018 was experienced in the product group “Tower crane” with the code of 842620 GTİP. While an increase for 914.3 was experienced in this product group compared to 2017, machinery with the value for 9.5 million dollars were exported.
WE WILL DIRECT TO EXPORT IN 2019
Osman Çakmak, the Chairperson of Board of Directors of Electric Crane Manufacturers’ Association (TEVİD) underlines that TEVİD members are especially exhibiting a high performance in export and emphasizes that they foresee a shrunk national sale figures because of the economic situation experienced in 2019. Expressing that they will overcome this shrinkage with the export, Çakmak says: “We believe that we will overcome the share which we have lost in the domestic market with export by developing alternative markets through the most important steps in export.”
Reminding that one or more overhead cranes are used in each factory established in Turkey and still operating, while saying that great majority of these cranes were imported in the past and great amount of money were paid in return, Çakmak draws attention that domestic crane manufacturers are taking the place of the international manufacturers in terms of quality and price and therefore, foreign currencies which are paid for import are now maintained in Turkey and have an important role in meeting the current deficit. Furthermore Çakmak emphasizes that Turkish crane segment can make more robust contributions to the Turkish export activities by creating an important competitive capacity in abroad upon the removal of the obstacle before the reasonable incentives and cheap financing opportunities.
Touching upon that as TEVİD, their most important agenda will be the study with the title of “Drawing Inspection and Surveillance Reports on Cranes” which will have a content to protect the customers by preventing manufacture of low quality in the industry, increase the awareness of the crane users and manufacturing firms and emphasize the importance of regular maintenance, Çakmak states that they have reached to the final stage in this study which they have carried out with the Ministry of Industry and Technology and the technical study group will complete their research and present the study to the Ministry in April. According to Çakmak, the most significant contribution of this study will be the prevention of the dangerous usage and occupational accidents in cranes and the increase it will bring to the total quality in the crane segment via inspections and surveillance.